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As part of the processing, the image-bearing layer was stripped from the paper and transferred to a hardened gelatin support. The first transparent plastic roll film followed in It was made from highly flammable nitrocellulose " celluloid " , now usually called " nitrate film ". Although cellulose acetate or " safety film " had been introduced by Kodak in , [24] at first it found only a few special applications as an alternative to the hazardous nitrate film, which had the advantages of being considerably tougher, slightly more transparent, and cheaper.

Films remained the dominant form of photography until the early 21st century when advances in digital photography drew consumers to digital formats. The distinctive "look" of film based photographs compared to digital images is likely due to a combination of factors, including: Originally, all photography was monochrome, or black-and-white.

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Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark areas define black-and-white photography.

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The cyanotype process, for example, produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen print process first used more than years ago, produces brownish tones.

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Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, sometimes because of the established archival permanence of well-processed silver-halide-based materials. Some full-color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black-and-white results, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome. Monochrome printing or electronic display can be used to salvage certain photographs taken in color which are unsatisfactory in their original form; sometimes when presented as black-and-white or single-color-toned images they are found to be more effective.

Although color photography has long predominated, monochrome images are still produced, mostly for artistic reasons.

Almost all digital cameras have an option to shoot in monochrome, and almost all image editing software can combine or selectively discard RGB color channels to produce a monochrome image from one shot in color. Color photography was explored beginning in the s.

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Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures hours or days for camera images and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light. The first permanent color photograph was taken in using the three-color-separation principle first published by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell in Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction.

A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors , a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late s. Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate.

Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images. Implementation of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red.

The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red.

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Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch , which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments.

After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency , the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method.

Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the s and the s. Kodachrome , the first modern "integral tripack" or "monopack" color film, was introduced by Kodak in It captured the three color components in a multi-layer emulsion.

One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum , another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing , the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure. Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing.

Currently, available color films still employ a multi-layer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product. Instant color film , used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector , or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper.

The latter is now the most common form of film non-digital color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment. After a transition period centered around —, color film was relegated to a niche market by inexpensive multi-megapixel digital cameras. Film continues to be the preference of some photographers because of its distinctive "look".


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In , Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In , Kodak unveiled the DCS , the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera.

Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born. Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications. Digital photography dominates the 21st century. Synthesis photography is part of computer-generated imagery CGI where the shooting process is modeled on real photography.

The CGI, creating digital copies of real universe, requires a visual representation process of these universes. Synthesis photography is the application of analog and digital photography in digital space. With the characteristics of the real photography but not being constrained by the physical limits of real world, synthesis photography allows artists to move into areas beyond the grasp of real photography. A large variety of photographic techniques and media are used in the process of capturing images for photography. These include the camera; stereoscopy; dualphotography; full-spectrum, ultraviolet and infrared media; light field photography; and other imaging techniques.

The camera is the image-forming device, and a photographic plate , photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the capture medium. The respective recording medium can be the plate or film itself, or a digital magnetic or electronic memory. Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material to the required amount of light to form a " latent image " on plate or film or RAW file in digital cameras which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image.

Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device CCD or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor CMOS technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on a paper.

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The camera or ' camera obscura ' is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. It was discovered and used in the 16th century by painters. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated.

This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used see Process camera.

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" sensitive enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch the Ticka camera or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens. The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on recording medium.

In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" number of frames per second. While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures to create the illusion of motion.

Photographs, both monochrome and color, can be captured and displayed through two side-by-side images that emulate human stereoscopic vision. Stereoscopic photography was the first that captured figures in motion. Such cameras have long been realized by using film and more recently in digital electronic methods including cell phone cameras.

Dualphotography consists of photographing a scene from both sides of a photographic device at once e. The dualphoto apparatus can be used to simultaneously capture both the subject and the photographer, or both sides of a geographical place at once, thus adding a supplementary narrative layer to that of a single image.

Ultraviolet and infrared films have been available for many decades and employed in a variety of photographic avenues since the s. New technological trends in digital photography have opened a new direction in full spectrum photography , where careful filtering choices across the ultraviolet, visible and infrared lead to new artistic visions.

Replacing a hot mirror or infrared blocking filter with an infrared pass or a wide spectrally transmitting filter allows the camera to detect the wider spectrum light at greater sensitivity. Without the hot-mirror, the red, green and blue or cyan, yellow and magenta colored micro-filters placed over the sensor elements pass varying amounts of ultraviolet blue window and infrared primarily red and somewhat lesser the green and blue micro-filters.

Uses of full spectrum photography are for fine art photography , geology , forensics and law enforcement. Digital methods of image capture and display processing have enabled the new technology of "light field photography" also known as synthetic aperture photography. This process allows focusing at various depths of field to be selected after the photograph has been captured.

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